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File: [XFree86 CVS] / xc / Attic / INSTALL.TXT
Revision: 220.127.116.11.2.1, Sun Nov 8 09:06:26 1998 UTC (16 years, 9 months ago) by dawes
Branch: xf-3_3-branch, xf-3_2A-branch
CVS Tags: xf-3_3_6b, xf-3_3_6a, xf-3_3_6, xf-3_3_5c, xf-3_3_5b, xf-3_3_5a, xf-3_3_5Za, xf-3_3_5Z, xf-3_3_5, xf-3_3_4d, xf-3_3_4c, xf-3_3_4b, xf-3_3_4a, xf-3_3_4Z, xf-3_3_4, xf-3_3_3b, xf-3_3_3a, xf-3_3_3_1f, xf-3_3_3_1e, xf-3_3_3_1d, xf-3_3_3_1c, xf-3_3_3_1b, xf-3_3_3_1a, xf-3_3_3_1Z, xf-3_3_3_1, xf-3_3_3Z, xf-3_3_3, xf-3_3_2Zc, xf-3_3_2Zb, xf-3_3_2Za, xf-3331_shark
Changes since 18.104.22.168: +302 -302 lines
various doc/build/config updates
Building and Installing the X Window System Stephen Gildea X Consortium March 5, 1996 Updated For Release 6.3 Copyright (C) 1995, 1996 X Consortium Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Soft- ware"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following condi- tions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABIL- ITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE X CONSORTIUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABIL- ITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the X Consortium. X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc. 1. Easy Build Instructions This quick summary is no substitute for reading the full build instruc- tions later in this document. When building an XFree86 release, see also the BUILD document located in xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xfree86/doc for important XFree86-specific build instructions. Edit xc/config/cf/site.def for local preferences. If you want to build with gcc uncomment the HasGcc2 line. If you want to install somewhere other than /usr/X11R6.3, change ProjectRoot. (Do not use DESTDIR.) If any fixes have been released by the X Consortium, stop here and fol- low the instructions at the top of each patch, but don't do any of the make commands suggested in the patches. Then continue here. Check the appropriate vendor-specific .cf file in xc/config/cf/ to make sure that OSMajorVersion and OSMinorVersion are set correctly for your system. Override them in site.def if necessary. See if there is a BootstrapCFlags mentioned in the comments in the ven- dor-specific .cf file. If there isn't one, cd to the xc directory and type: % make World >& world.log If there is a BootstrapCFlags, take its value and type: % make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log Do not call the output file "make.log" when doing "make World". After a successful build, you can install with: % make install >& install.log You can install manual pages with: % make install.man >& man.log While the system is building (or if things fail), read the rest of these installation instructions. 2. Building X This document gives detailed instructions for building Release 6: get- ting it off the distribution medium, configuring, compiling, installing, running, and updating. Release Notes are in xc/RELNOTES.* (various formats) in the distribu- tion. More recent information about newly-discovered problems may be found in the Frequently Asked Questions posting appearing monthly on the comp.windows.x newsgroup and xpert mailing list. It is also available via anonymous FTP on ftp.x.org in the file contrib/faqs/FAQ.Z, or on your local X mirror site. 2.1. Preparing the Site If you are unpacking tar files, you will need about 130 Mb to hold the xc/ part. To install requires 30-50 Mb assuming you have shared libraries (80-100 Mb without). You will need an equivalent amount of extra space to build, since you also need room for all the object files. Distributed as tar files, Release 6.3 core is divided into parts as fol- lows: xc-1.tar contains everything in xc/ that isn't in the other tar files xc-2.tar contains xc/fonts, xc/doc/specs, xc/util xc-3.tar contains xc/doc/hardcopy If you define BuildFonts to NO, you only need to unpack xc-1.tar to build. If you build fonts, then you will also need xc-2.tar to build. 2.2. Unpacking the Distribution The distribution normally comes as multiple tar files, either on tape or across a network, or as a CD-ROM. 2.2.1. Unpacking a Compressed FTP Distribution If you have obtained compressed tar files over the network, create a directory to hold the sources and cd into it: mkdir sourcedir cd sourcedir Then for each tar file xc-*.tar.Z, execute this: zcat ftp-dir/xc-N.tar.Z | tar xf - 2.2.2. Unpacking a gzipped FTP Distribution If you have obtained gzipped tar files over the network, create a direc- tory to hold the sources and cd into it: mkdir sourcedir cd sourcedir Then for each tar file xc-*.tar.gz, execute this: gunzip -c ftp-dir/xc-N.tar.gz | tar xf - 2.2.3. Unpacking a Split Compressed FTP Distribution If you have obtained compressed and split tar files over the network, create a directory to hold the sources: mkdir sourcedir Then for each directory xc-*: cd ftp-dir/xc-N cat xc-N.?? | uncompress | (cd sourcedir; tar xf -) 2.2.4. Unpacking the Tape Distribution If you have obtained a tape, create a directory to hold the sources and untar everything into that directory: mkdir sourcedir cd sourcedir tar xf tape-device 2.2.5. Using the CD-ROM If you have obtained a CD-ROM, you don't have to do anything to unpack it. However, you will have to create a symbolic link tree to build X. See the next section. To mount the CD-ROM, see the mount(8) manual page on your system or the liner notes that came with the CD-ROM. Some systems, e.g., Solaris 2, can automatically mount the CD-ROM for you. 2.3. Apply Patches If there are fixes released that are more recent than your distribution, apply them now. Follow the instructions at the top of each patch, but don't do any make commands. See the section "Public Patches" later in this document. Then continue here. 2.4. Symbolic Link Trees If you expect to build the distribution on more than one machine using a shared source tree, or you are building from CD-ROM, or you just want to keep the source tree pure, you may want to use the program xc/con- fig/util/lndir.c to create a symbolic link tree on each build machine. The links may use an additional 10 megabytes, but it is cheaper than having multiple copies of the source tree. It may be tricky to compile lndir before the distribution is built. If you have a copy from a previous release, use that. Makefile.ini can be used for building lndir the first time. You may have to specify OSFLAGS=-Dsomething to get it to compile. What you would pass as BOOT- STRAPCFLAGS might work. The command line looks something like this: make -f Makefile.ini OSFLAGS=-Dflag To use a symbolic link tree, create a directory for the build, cd to it, and type this: lndir sourcedir where sourcedir is the pathname of the directory where you stored the sources. All of the build instructions given below should then be done in the build directory on each machine, rather than in the source direc- tory. xc/config/util/mkshadow/ contains mkshadow, an alternative program to lndir. 2.5. Configuration Parameters Build information for each source directory is in files called Imake- file. An Imakefile, along with local configuration information in xc/config/cf/, is used by the program imake to generate a Makefile. Most of the configuration work prior to building the release is to set parameters so that imake will generate correct files. Most of those parameters are set in xc/config/cf/site.def. You will also need to check the appropriate vendor-specific .cf file in xc/config/cf/ to make sure that OSMajorVersion, OSMinorVersion, and OsTeenyVersion are set correctly for your system. Override them in site.def if necessary. The site.def file has two parts, one protected with "#ifdef BeforeVen- dorCF" and one with "#ifdef AfterVendorCF". The file is actually pro- cessed twice, once before the .cf file and once after. About the only thing you need to set in the "before" section is HasGcc2; just about everything else can be set in the "after" section. The sample site.def also has commented out support to include another file, host.def. This scheme may be useful if you want to set most parameters site-wide, but some parameters vary from machine to machine. If you use a symbolic link tree, you can share site.def across all machines, and give each machine its own copy of host.def. The config parameters are listed in xc/config/cf/README, but here are some of the more common parameters that you may wish to set in site.def. ProjectRoot The destination where X will be installed. This variable needs to be set before you build, as some programs that read files at run- time have the installation directory compiled in to them. Assuming you have set the variable to some value /path, files will be installed into /path/bin, /path/include/X11, /path/lib, and /path/man. HasGcc Set to YES to build with gcc version 1. HasGcc2 Set to YES to build with gcc version 2. Both this option and Has- Gcc look for a compiler named gcc, but HasGcc2 will cause the build to use more features of gcc 2, such as the ability to compile shared libraries. BuildXInputExt Set to YES to build the X Input Extension. This extension requires device-dependent support in the X server, which exists only in Xhp in our implementation. BuildPexExt Set to NO to not build the PEX server extension and fonts. DefaultUsrBin This is a directory where programs will be found even if PATH is not set in the environment. It is independent of ProjectRoot and defaults to /usr/bin. It is used, for example, when connecting from a remote system via rsh. The rstart program installs its server in this directory. InstallServerSetUID Some systems require the X server to run as root to access the devices it needs. If you are on such a system and will not be using xdm, you can set this variable to YES to install the X server setuid to root. Note that the X server has not been analyzed by the X Consortium for security in such an installation; talk to your system manager before setting this variable. InstallXdmConfig By default set to NO, which suppresses installing xdm config files over existing ones. Leave it set to NO if your site has customized the files in /usr/X11R6.3/lib/X11/xdm, as many sites do. If you don't install the new files, merge any changes present in the new files. MotifBC Causes Xlib and Xt to work around some bugs in older versions of Motif. Set to YES only if you will be linking with Motif version 1.1.1, 1.1.2, or 1.1.3. GetValuesBC Setting this variable to YES allows illegal XtGetValues requests with NULL ArgVal to usually succeed, as R5 did. Some applications erroneously rely on this behavior. Support for this will be removed in a future release. The following vendor-specific .cf files are in the release but have not been tested recently and hence probably need changes to work: apollo.cf, bsd.cf, convex.cf, DGUX.cf, luna.cf, macII.cf, Mips.cf, moto.cf, Oki.cf, pegasus.cf, x386.cf. Amoeba.cf is known to require additional patches. The file xc/lib/Xdmcp/Wraphelp.c, for XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, is not included in this release. 2.6. System Build Notes This section contains hints on building X with specific compilers and operating systems. If the build isn't finding things right, make sure you are using a com- piler for your operating system. For example, a pre-compiled gcc for a different OS will not have right symbols defined, so imake will not work correctly. 2.6.1. gcc gcc version 2 is in regular use at the X Consortium on Sparc platforms. Set the variable HasGcc2. X will not compile on some systems with gcc version 2.5, 2.5.1, or 2.5.2 because of an incorrect declaration of mem- move() in a gcc include file. If you are using a gcc version older than 2.7 on Solaris x86, you need to specify BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="-Dsun" in the "make World" command. 2.6.2. Other GNU tools Use of the GNU assembler, as, or linker, ld, is not supported. GNU make is not supported. 2.6.3. SparcWorks 2.0 If you have a non-threaded program and want to debug it with the old SparcWorks 2.0 dbx, you will need to use the thread stubs library in xc/util/misc/thr_stubs.c. Compile it as follows: cc -c thr_stubs.c ar cq libthr_stubs.a thr_stubs.o ranlib libthr_stubs.a Install libthr_stubs.a in the same directory with your X libraries (e.g., /usr/X11R6.3/lib/libthr_stubs.a). Add the following line to site.def: #define ExtraLibraries -lsocket -lnsl $(CDEBUGFLAGS:-g=-lthr_stubs) This example uses a make macro substitution; not all make implementa- tions support this feature. 2.6.4. CenterLine C under Solaris 2 If you are using the CenterLine C compiler to compile the distribution under Solaris 2, place the following line in your site.def: #define HasCenterLineC YES If clcc is not in your default search path, add this line to site.def: #define CcCmd /path/to/your/clcc If you are using CodeCenter 4.0.4 or earlier, the following files trig- ger bugs in the clcc optimizer: xc/programs/Xserver/cfb16/cfbgetsp.c xc/programs/Xserver/cfb16/cfbfillsp.c xc/programs/Xserver/cfb/cfbgetsp.c Thus to build the server, you will have to compile these files by hand with the -g flag: % cd xc/programs/Xserver/cfb16 % make CDEBUGFLAGS="-g" cfbgetsp.o cfbfillsp.o % cd ../cfb % make CDEBUGFLAGS="-g" cfbgetsp.o This optimizer bug appears to be fixed in CodeCenter 4.0.6. 2.6.5. IBM AIX 4.1.4 On AIX 4.1.4, the file lib/font/Type1/objects.c must be compiled without optimization (-O) else the X server will exit when Type 1 fonts are used. 2.6.6. SunOS 4 SunOS 4.0 and earlier need BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS=-DNOSTDHDRS because they do not have unistd.h nor stdlib.h. Do not supply a BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS when building any SunOS 4.1 version. 2.6.7. Microsoft Windows NT All of the base libraries are supported, including multi-threading in Xlib and Xt, but some of the more complicated applications, specifically xterm and xdm, are not supported. There are also some other rough edges in the implementation, such as lack of support for non-socket file descriptors as Xt alternate inputs and not using the registry for configurable parameters like the system filenames and search paths. The Xnest server has been made to run on NT. It requires a real X server for output still. 2.6.8. Omron Luna The Omron Luna platform is no longer supported. The Luna version of the make program doesn't define the standard macro MAKE, so you must run it as "make MAKE=make" at top level, e.g., "make MAKE=make World". 2.7. The Build On NT, type nmake World.Win32 > world.log On other systems, find the BootstrapCFlags line, if any, in the vendor- specific .cf file. If there isn't one, type % make World >& world.log otherwise type % make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log You can call the output file something other than "world.log", but do not call it "make.log" because files with this name are automatically deleted during the "cleaning" stage of the build. Because the build can take several hours to complete, you will probably want to run it in the background and keep a watch on the output. For example: % make World >& world.log & % tail -f world.log If something goes wrong, the easiest thing is to just start over (typing "make World" again) once you have corrected the problem. 2.8. Installing X If everything is built successfully, you can install the software by typing the following as root: % make install >& install.log Again, you might want to run this in the background and use tail to watch the progress. You can install the manual pages by typing the following as root: % make install.man >& man.log 2.8.1. System Installation Notes This section contains hints on installing and using X with specific com- pilers and operating systems. 22.214.171.124. The X Server on AIX 4 For IBM's AIX 4, you need to make sure the LFT device is associated with the correct graphics adapter. It's a one-time setup that does not hap- pen automatically, even if there's only one graphics adapter in the sys- tem. To configure the LFT device properly, become root and start SMIT. Go to the "Devices" category, choose "LFT", then "Displays", then "Move the LFT to Another Display". Select "Both" for when the change should take effect, then select the display adapter where you want to run the X server. Confirm the changes and exit SMIT; from now on, you should be able to run the server just fine. To run Xibm from xdm, you must provide the "-force" flag on the server command line in the Xservers file. 2.9. Shared Libraries The version number of some of the the shared libraries has been changed. On SunOS 4, which supports minor version numbers for shared libraries, programs linked with the R6 libraries will use the new libraries with no special action required. On other platforms you have the following choices: 1. Keep the old versions of the libraries around. 2. Relink all applications with the new libraries. 3. Create a link from the old name to the new name. For example, to have programs that were linked against libX11.so.6.0 use libX11.so.6.3, make this link: ln -s libX11.so.6.3 libX11.so.6.0 2.10. Setting Up xterm If your /etc/termcap and /usr/lib/terminfo databases do not have correct entries for xterm, use the sample entries provided in the directory xc/programs/xterm/. System V users may need to compile and install the terminfo entry with the tic utility. Since each xterm will need a separate pseudoterminal, you need a reason- able number of them for normal execution. You probably will want at least 32 on a small, multiuser system. On most systems, each pty has two devices, a master and a slave, which are usually named /dev/tty[pqrstu][0-f] and /dev/pty[pqrstu][0-f]. If you don't have at least the "p" and "q" sets configured (try typing "ls /dev/?ty??"), you should have your system administrator add them. This is commonly done by running the MAKEDEV script in the /dev directory with appropriate arguments. 2.11. Starting Servers at System Boot The xfs and xdm programs are designed to be run automatically at system startup. Please read the manual pages for details on setting up config- uration files; reasonable sample files are in xc/programs/xdm/config/ and xc/programs/xfs/. 2.11.1. On BSD-based systems using /etc/rc If your system uses an /etc/rc file at boot time, you can usually enable these programs by placing the following at or near the end of the file: if [ -f /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xfs ]; then /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xfs & echo -n ' xfs' fi if [ -f /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xdm ]; then /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xdm; echo -n ' xdm' fi Since xfs can serve fonts over the network, you do not need to run a font server on every machine with an X display. You should start xfs before xdm, since xdm may start an X server which is a client of the font server. The examples here use /usr/X11R6.3/bin, but if you have installed into a different directory by setting (or unsetting) ProjectRoot then you need to substitute the correct directory. If you are unsure about how system boot works, or if your system does not use /etc/rc, consult your system administrator for help. 2.11.2. On SystemV-based systems There are two ways you can get On systems with a /etc/inittab file, you can edit this file to add the lines xfs:3:once:/usr/X11R6.3/bin/xfs xdm:3:once:/usr/X11R6.3/bin/xdm On some systems, you can edit a file in /etc/init.d to run the X Consor- tium xdm instead of the vendor's product xdm. On Sony this file is /etc/init.d/consxdm. On IRIX edit /etc/init.d/xdm. 2.12. Using OPEN LOOK applications You can use the X11R6 Xsun server with OPEN LOOK applications, but you must pass the -swapLkeys flag to the server on startup, or the OPEN LOOK Undo, Copy, Paste, Find, and Cut keys may not work correctly. For exam- ple, to run Sun's OpenWindows 3.3 desktop environment with an X11R6 server, use the command: % openwin -server /usr/X11R6.3/bin/Xsun -swapLkeys The keysyms reported by keys on the numeric keypad have also changed since X11R5; if you find that OpenWindows applications do not respond to keypad keys and cursor control keys when using the R6 server, you can remap the keypad to generate R5 style keysyms using the following xmodmap commands: keysym Pause = F21 keysym Print = F22 keysym Break = F23 keysym KP_Equal = F24 keysym KP_Divide = F25 keysym KP_Multiply = F26 keysym KP_Home = F27 keysym KP_Up = Up keysym KP_Prior = F29 keysym KP_Left = Left keycode 100 = F31 keysym KP_Right = Right keysym KP_End = F33 keysym KP_Down = Down keysym KP_Next = F35 keysym KP_Insert = Insert keysym KP_Delete = Delete 2.13. Rebuilding after Patches You shouldn't need this right away, but eventually you are probably going to make changes to the sources, for example by applying any public patches that may be released. Each patch comes with explicit instructions at the top of it saying what to do. Thus the procedure here is only an overview of the types of com- mands that might be necessary to rebuild X after changing it. If you are building from CD-ROM, apply the patches to the symbolic link tree. The links to changed files will be replaced with local files con- taining the new contents. If only source files are changed, you should be able to rebuild just by going to the xc directory in your build tree and typing: % make >& make.log If configuration files are changed, the safest thing to do is type: % make Everything >& every.log "Everything" is similar to "World" in that it rebuilds every Makefile, but unlike "World" it does not delete the existing objects, libraries, and executables, and only rebuilds what is out of date. 2.14. Formatting the Documentation The PostScript files in xc/doc/hardcopy can be generated from the sources in xc/doc/specs. Most of the documentation is in troff using the -ms macros. The easiest way to format it is to use the Imakefiles provided. Set the name of your local troff program by setting the variable Trof- fCmd in xc/config/cf/site.def. Then build the Makefiles: cd xc/doc make SUBDIRS=specs Makefiles Finally, go to the directory you are interested in and type "make" there. This command will generate .PS files. You can also generate text files by specifying the document name with a .txt extension as a make target, e.g., "make icccm.txt".