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	      Building and Installing the X Window System

			     Stephen Gildea

			      X Consortium

			     March 5, 1996

			Updated For Release 6.3

Copyright (C) 1995, 1996 X Consortium

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Soft-
ware"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without
limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute,
sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to
whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following condi-

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.


Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall
not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or
other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from
the X Consortium.

X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

1.  Easy Build Instructions

This quick summary is no substitute for reading the full build instruc-
tions later in this document.

When building an XFree86 release, see also the BUILD document located in
xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xfree86/doc for important XFree86-specific build

Edit xc/config/cf/site.def for local preferences.  If you want to build
with gcc uncomment the HasGcc2 line.  If you want to install somewhere
other than /usr/X11R6.3, change ProjectRoot.  (Do not use DESTDIR.)

If any fixes have been released by the X Consortium, stop here and fol-
low the instructions at the top of each patch, but don't do any of the
make commands suggested in the patches.  Then continue here.

Check the appropriate vendor-specific .cf file in xc/config/cf/ to make
sure that OSMajorVersion and OSMinorVersion are set correctly for your
system.  Override them in site.def if necessary.

See if there is a BootstrapCFlags mentioned in the comments in the ven-
dor-specific .cf file.	If there isn't one, cd to the xc directory and

     % make World >& world.log

If there is a BootstrapCFlags, take its value and type:

     % make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log

Do not call the output file "make.log" when doing "make World".  After a
successful build, you can install with:

     % make install >& install.log

You can install manual pages with:

     % make install.man >& man.log

While the system is building (or if things fail), read the rest of these
installation instructions.

2.  Building X

This document gives detailed instructions for building Release 6: get-
ting it off the distribution medium, configuring, compiling, installing,
running, and updating.

Release Notes are in xc/RELNOTES.* (various formats) in the distribu-

More recent information about newly-discovered problems may be found in
the Frequently Asked Questions posting appearing monthly on the
comp.windows.x newsgroup and xpert mailing list.  It is also available
via anonymous FTP on ftp.x.org in the file contrib/faqs/FAQ.Z, or on
your local X mirror site.

2.1.  Preparing the Site

If you are unpacking tar files, you will need about 130 Mb to hold the
xc/ part.  To install requires 30-50 Mb assuming you have shared
libraries (80-100 Mb without).	You will need an equivalent amount of
extra space to build, since you also need room for all the object files.

Distributed as tar files, Release 6.3 core is divided into parts as fol-

     xc-1.tar	    contains everything in xc/ that isn't in the other tar files
     xc-2.tar	    contains xc/fonts, xc/doc/specs, xc/util
     xc-3.tar	    contains xc/doc/hardcopy

If you define BuildFonts to NO, you only need to unpack xc-1.tar to
build.	If you build fonts, then you will also need xc-2.tar to build.

2.2.  Unpacking the Distribution

The distribution normally comes as multiple tar files, either on tape or
across a network, or as a CD-ROM.

2.2.1.	Unpacking a Compressed FTP Distribution

If you have obtained compressed tar files over the network, create a
directory to hold the sources and cd into it:

     mkdir sourcedir
     cd sourcedir

Then for each tar file xc-*.tar.Z, execute this:

     zcat ftp-dir/xc-N.tar.Z | tar xf -

2.2.2.	Unpacking a gzipped FTP Distribution

If you have obtained gzipped tar files over the network, create a direc-
tory to hold the sources and cd into it:

     mkdir sourcedir
     cd sourcedir

Then for each tar file xc-*.tar.gz, execute this:

     gunzip -c ftp-dir/xc-N.tar.gz | tar xf -

2.2.3.	Unpacking a Split Compressed FTP Distribution

If you have obtained compressed and split tar files over the network,
create a directory to hold the sources:

     mkdir sourcedir

Then for each directory xc-*:

     cd ftp-dir/xc-N
     cat xc-N.?? | uncompress | (cd sourcedir; tar xf -)

2.2.4.	Unpacking the Tape Distribution

If you have obtained a tape, create a directory to hold the sources and
untar everything into that directory:

     mkdir sourcedir
     cd sourcedir
     tar xf tape-device

2.2.5.	Using the CD-ROM

If you have obtained a CD-ROM, you don't have to do anything to unpack
it.  However, you will have to create a symbolic link tree to build X.
See the next section.

To mount the CD-ROM, see the mount(8) manual page on your system or the
liner notes that came with the CD-ROM.	Some systems, e.g., Solaris 2,
can automatically mount the CD-ROM for you.

2.3.  Apply Patches

If there are fixes released that are more recent than your distribution,
apply them now.  Follow the instructions at the top of each patch, but
don't do any make commands.  See the section "Public Patches" later in
this document.	Then continue here.

2.4.  Symbolic Link Trees

If you expect to build the distribution on more than one machine using a
shared source tree, or you are building from CD-ROM, or you just want to
keep the source tree pure, you may want to use the program xc/con-
fig/util/lndir.c to create a symbolic link tree on each build machine.
The links may use an additional 10 megabytes, but it is cheaper than
having multiple copies of the source tree.

It may be tricky to compile lndir before the distribution is built.  If
you have a copy from a previous release, use that.  Makefile.ini can be
used for building lndir the first time.  You may have to specify
OSFLAGS=-Dsomething to get it to compile.  What you would pass as BOOT-
STRAPCFLAGS might work.  The command line looks something like this:

     make -f Makefile.ini OSFLAGS=-Dflag

To use a symbolic link tree, create a directory for the build, cd to it,
and type this:

     lndir sourcedir

where sourcedir is the pathname of the directory where you stored the
sources.  All of the build instructions given below should then be done
in the build directory on each machine, rather than in the source direc-

xc/config/util/mkshadow/ contains mkshadow, an alternative program to

2.5.  Configuration Parameters

Build information for each source directory is in files called Imake-
file.  An Imakefile, along with local configuration information in
xc/config/cf/, is used by the program imake to generate a Makefile.

Most of the configuration work prior to building the release is to set
parameters so that imake will generate correct files.  Most of those
parameters are set in xc/config/cf/site.def.  You will also need to
check the appropriate vendor-specific .cf file in xc/config/cf/ to make
sure that OSMajorVersion, OSMinorVersion, and OsTeenyVersion are set
correctly for your system.  Override them in site.def if necessary.

The site.def file has two parts, one protected with "#ifdef BeforeVen-
dorCF" and one with "#ifdef AfterVendorCF".  The file is actually pro-
cessed twice, once before the .cf file and once after.	About the only
thing you need to set in the "before" section is HasGcc2; just about
everything else can be set in the "after" section.

The sample site.def also has commented out support to include another
file, host.def.  This scheme may be useful if you want to set most
parameters site-wide, but some parameters vary from machine to machine.
If you use a symbolic link tree, you can share site.def across all
machines, and give each machine its own copy of host.def.

The config parameters are listed in xc/config/cf/README, but here are
some of the more common parameters that you may wish to set in site.def.

     The destination where X will be installed.  This variable needs to
     be set before you build, as some programs that read files at run-
     time have the installation directory compiled in to them.	Assuming
     you have set the variable to some value /path, files will be
     installed into /path/bin, /path/include/X11, /path/lib, and

     Set to YES to build with gcc version 1.

     Set to YES to build with gcc version 2.  Both this option and Has-
     Gcc look for a compiler named gcc, but HasGcc2 will cause the build
     to use more features of gcc 2, such as the ability to compile
     shared libraries.

     Set to YES to build the X Input Extension.  This extension requires
     device-dependent support in the X server, which exists only in Xhp
     in our implementation.

     Set to NO to not build the PEX server extension and fonts.

     This is a directory where programs will be found even if PATH is
     not set in the environment.  It is independent of ProjectRoot and
     defaults to /usr/bin.  It is used, for example, when connecting
     from a remote system via rsh.  The rstart program installs its
     server in this directory.

     Some systems require the X server to run as root to access the
     devices it needs.	If you are on such a system and will not be
     using xdm, you can set this variable to YES to install the X server
     setuid to root.  Note that the X server has not been analyzed by
     the X Consortium for security in such an installation; talk to your
     system manager before setting this variable.

     By default set to NO, which suppresses installing xdm config files
     over existing ones.  Leave it set to NO if your site has customized
     the files in /usr/X11R6.3/lib/X11/xdm, as many sites do.  If you
     don't install the new files, merge any changes present in the new

     Causes Xlib and Xt to work around some bugs in older versions of
     Motif.  Set to YES only if you will be linking with Motif version
     1.1.1, 1.1.2, or 1.1.3.

     Setting this variable to YES allows illegal XtGetValues requests
     with NULL ArgVal to usually succeed, as R5 did.  Some applications
     erroneously rely on this behavior.  Support for this will be
     removed in a future release.

The following vendor-specific .cf files are in the release but have not
been tested recently and hence probably need changes to work: apollo.cf,
bsd.cf, convex.cf, DGUX.cf, luna.cf, macII.cf, Mips.cf, moto.cf, Oki.cf,
pegasus.cf, x386.cf.  Amoeba.cf is known to require additional patches.

The file xc/lib/Xdmcp/Wraphelp.c, for XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, is not
included in this release.

2.6.  System Build Notes

This section contains hints on building X with specific compilers and
operating systems.

If the build isn't finding things right, make sure you are using a com-
piler for your operating system.  For example, a pre-compiled gcc for a
different OS will not have right symbols defined, so imake will not work

2.6.1.	gcc

gcc version 2 is in regular use at the X Consortium on Sparc platforms.
Set the variable HasGcc2.  X will not compile on some systems with gcc
version 2.5, 2.5.1, or 2.5.2 because of an incorrect declaration of mem-
move() in a gcc include file.

If you are using a gcc version older than 2.7 on Solaris x86, you need
to specify BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="-Dsun" in the "make World" command.

2.6.2.	Other GNU tools

Use of the GNU assembler, as, or linker, ld, is not supported.	GNU make
is not supported.

2.6.3.	SparcWorks 2.0

If you have a non-threaded program and want to debug it with the old
SparcWorks 2.0 dbx, you will need to use the thread stubs library in
xc/util/misc/thr_stubs.c.  Compile it as follows:

     cc -c thr_stubs.c
     ar cq libthr_stubs.a thr_stubs.o
     ranlib libthr_stubs.a

Install libthr_stubs.a in the same directory with your X libraries
(e.g., /usr/X11R6.3/lib/libthr_stubs.a).  Add the following line to

     #define ExtraLibraries -lsocket -lnsl $(CDEBUGFLAGS:-g=-lthr_stubs)

This example uses a make macro substitution; not all make implementa-
tions support this feature.

2.6.4.	CenterLine C under Solaris 2

If you are using the CenterLine C compiler to compile the distribution
under Solaris 2, place the following line in your site.def:

     #define HasCenterLineC YES

If clcc is not in your default search path, add this line to site.def:

     #define CcCmd /path/to/your/clcc

If you are using CodeCenter 4.0.4 or earlier, the following files trig-
ger bugs in the clcc optimizer:


Thus to build the server, you will have to compile these files by hand
with the -g flag:

     % cd xc/programs/Xserver/cfb16
     % make CDEBUGFLAGS="-g" cfbgetsp.o cfbfillsp.o
     % cd ../cfb
     % make CDEBUGFLAGS="-g" cfbgetsp.o

This optimizer bug appears to be fixed in CodeCenter 4.0.6.

2.6.5.	IBM AIX 4.1.4

On AIX 4.1.4, the file lib/font/Type1/objects.c must be compiled without
optimization (-O) else the X server will exit when Type 1 fonts are

2.6.6.	SunOS 4

SunOS 4.0 and earlier need BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS=-DNOSTDHDRS because they do
not have unistd.h nor stdlib.h.  Do not supply a BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS when
building any SunOS 4.1 version.

2.6.7.	Microsoft Windows NT

All of the base libraries are supported, including multi-threading in
Xlib and Xt, but some of the more complicated applications, specifically
xterm and xdm, are not supported.

There are also some other rough edges in the implementation, such as
lack of support for non-socket file descriptors as Xt alternate inputs
and not using the registry for configurable parameters like the system
filenames and search paths.

The Xnest server has been made to run on NT.  It requires a real X
server for output still.

2.6.8.	Omron Luna

The Omron Luna platform is no longer supported.  The Luna version of the
make program doesn't define the standard macro MAKE, so you must run it
as "make MAKE=make" at top level, e.g., "make MAKE=make World".

2.7.  The Build

On NT, type

     nmake World.Win32 > world.log

On other systems, find the BootstrapCFlags line, if any, in the vendor-
specific .cf file.  If there isn't one, type

     % make World >& world.log

otherwise type

     % make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log

You can call the output file something other than "world.log", but do
not call it "make.log" because files with this name are automatically
deleted during the "cleaning" stage of the build.

Because the build can take several hours to complete, you will probably
want to run it in the background and keep a watch on the output.  For

     % make World >& world.log &
     % tail -f world.log

If something goes wrong, the easiest thing is to just start over (typing
"make World" again) once you have corrected the problem.

2.8.  Installing X

If everything is built successfully, you can install the software by
typing the following as root:

     % make install >& install.log

Again, you might want to run this in the background and use tail to
watch the progress.

You can install the manual pages by typing the following as root:

     % make install.man >& man.log

2.8.1.	System Installation Notes

This section contains hints on installing and using X with specific com-
pilers and operating systems.  The X Server on AIX 4

For IBM's AIX 4, you need to make sure the LFT device is associated with
the correct graphics adapter.  It's a one-time setup that does not hap-
pen automatically, even if there's only one graphics adapter in the sys-
tem.  To configure the LFT device properly, become root and start SMIT.
Go to the "Devices" category, choose "LFT", then "Displays", then "Move
the LFT to Another Display".

Select "Both" for when the change should take effect, then select the
display adapter where you want to run the X server.  Confirm the changes
and exit SMIT; from now on, you should be able to run the server just

To run Xibm from xdm, you must provide the "-force" flag on the server
command line in the Xservers file.

2.9.  Shared Libraries

The version number of some of the the shared libraries has been changed.
On SunOS 4, which supports minor version numbers for shared libraries,
programs linked with the R6 libraries will use the new libraries with no
special action required.  On other platforms you have the following

1.   Keep the old versions of the libraries around.

2.   Relink all applications with the new libraries.

3.   Create a link from the old name to the new name.

     For example, to have programs that were linked against
     libX11.so.6.0 use libX11.so.6.3, make this link:

	  ln -s libX11.so.6.3 libX11.so.6.0

2.10.  Setting Up xterm

If your /etc/termcap and /usr/lib/terminfo databases do not have correct
entries for xterm, use the sample entries provided in the directory
xc/programs/xterm/.  System V users may need to compile and install the
terminfo entry with the tic utility.

Since each xterm will need a separate pseudoterminal, you need a reason-
able number of them for normal execution.  You probably will want at
least 32 on a small, multiuser system.	On most systems, each pty has
two devices, a master and a slave, which are usually named
/dev/tty[pqrstu][0-f] and /dev/pty[pqrstu][0-f].  If you don't have at
least the "p" and "q" sets configured (try typing "ls /dev/?ty??"), you
should have your system administrator add them.  This is commonly done
by running the MAKEDEV script in the /dev directory with appropriate

2.11.  Starting Servers at System Boot

The xfs and xdm programs are designed to be run automatically at system
startup.  Please read the manual pages for details on setting up config-
uration files; reasonable sample files are in xc/programs/xdm/config/
and xc/programs/xfs/.

2.11.1.  On BSD-based systems using /etc/rc

If your system uses an /etc/rc file at boot time, you can usually enable
these programs by placing the following at or near the end of the file:

     if [ -f /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xfs ]; then
	     /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xfs & echo -n ' xfs'

     if [ -f /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xdm ]; then
	     /usr/X11R6.3/bin/xdm; echo -n ' xdm'

Since xfs can serve fonts over the network, you do not need to run a
font server on every machine with an X display.  You should start xfs
before xdm, since xdm may start an X server which is a client of the
font server.

The examples here use /usr/X11R6.3/bin, but if you have installed into a
different directory by setting (or unsetting) ProjectRoot then you need
to substitute the correct directory.

If you are unsure about how system boot works, or if your system does
not use /etc/rc, consult your system administrator for help.

2.11.2.  On SystemV-based systems

There are two ways you can get On systems with a /etc/inittab file, you
can edit this file to add the lines


On some systems, you can edit a file in /etc/init.d to run the X Consor-
tium xdm instead of the vendor's product xdm.  On Sony this file is
/etc/init.d/consxdm.  On IRIX edit /etc/init.d/xdm.

2.12.  Using OPEN LOOK applications

You can use the X11R6 Xsun server with OPEN LOOK applications, but you
must pass the -swapLkeys flag to the server on startup, or the OPEN LOOK
Undo, Copy, Paste, Find, and Cut keys may not work correctly.  For exam-
ple, to run Sun's OpenWindows 3.3 desktop environment with an X11R6
server, use the command:

     % openwin -server /usr/X11R6.3/bin/Xsun -swapLkeys

The keysyms reported by keys on the numeric keypad have also changed
since X11R5; if you find that OpenWindows applications do not respond to
keypad keys and cursor control keys when using the R6 server, you can
remap the keypad to generate R5 style keysyms using the following
xmodmap commands:

     keysym Pause = F21
     keysym Print = F22
     keysym Break = F23
     keysym KP_Equal = F24
     keysym KP_Divide = F25
     keysym KP_Multiply = F26
     keysym KP_Home = F27
     keysym KP_Up = Up
     keysym KP_Prior = F29
     keysym KP_Left = Left
     keycode 100 = F31
     keysym KP_Right = Right
     keysym KP_End = F33
     keysym KP_Down = Down
     keysym KP_Next = F35
     keysym KP_Insert = Insert
     keysym KP_Delete = Delete

2.13.  Rebuilding after Patches

You shouldn't need this right away, but eventually you are probably
going to make changes to the sources, for example by applying any public
patches that may be released.

Each patch comes with explicit instructions at the top of it saying what
to do.	Thus the procedure here is only an overview of the types of com-
mands that might be necessary to rebuild X after changing it.

If you are building from CD-ROM, apply the patches to the symbolic link
tree.  The links to changed files will be replaced with local files con-
taining the new contents.

If only source files are changed, you should be able to rebuild just by
going to the xc directory in your build tree and typing:

     % make >& make.log

If configuration files are changed, the safest thing to do is type:

     % make Everything >& every.log

"Everything" is similar to "World" in that it rebuilds every Makefile,
but unlike "World" it does not delete the existing objects, libraries,
and executables, and only rebuilds what is out of date.

2.14.  Formatting the Documentation

The PostScript files in xc/doc/hardcopy can be generated from the
sources in xc/doc/specs.  Most of the documentation is in troff using
the -ms macros.  The easiest way to format it is to use the Imakefiles

Set the name of your local troff program by setting the variable Trof-
fCmd in xc/config/cf/site.def.	Then build the Makefiles:

     cd xc/doc
     make SUBDIRS=specs Makefiles

Finally, go to the directory you are interested in and type "make"
there.	This command will generate .PS files.  You can also generate
text files by specifying the document name with a .txt extension as a
make target, e.g., "make icccm.txt".

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